Because of the need for water, which is a vital liquid, human beings have sought and accessed it in all circumstances. Undoubtedly, the ancient Persians were the first to dig into wells and aqueducts. In addition to manually drilling wells, which are now common in many places, mechanical drilling techniques are also used extensively. Mechanical excavations, which are usually done in two ways, include blunt and rotary drilling. The impact drills used by the mid-19th century to drill wells, known as the Canadian method, were similar to a long, tall drill that was capable of penetrating several hundred meters into the ground.

Although most of the oil wells are drilled by rotational method, still in some oil-rich countries, especially the United States, still used a blast method, and it is estimated that nearly 25 to 30 percent of US oil wells are dug by impact. Duranti drilling was first used in Spateletop, near Texas, in 1901, and due to its advantages in terms of impact, its scope soon expanded. As in the 1920s, most of the excavations that were done to extract oil around the world were by this method.

Geological surveys, with all the precision, predict the possibility of reservoirs only. Oil is the only means to ensure oil. The drill is also used to extract submarines.
A number of drilling methods:
1) Shot digging
2) Rotary drill
3) Ogir is a continuous spiral
4) Ogre between the empty
1) Shot digging

This drill is used to obtain soil samples, exploratory drilling for basic studies, drill hole drilling for some field tests, including SPT testing.

Drilling Method: Head drill head up and down causes material to be washed down under the injection tube. The water is squeezed out of the hole by the head and leaves the pieces out.

Advantages: The need for a skilled worker. It can be used at all places available for lightweight vehicles.

Limitations: Operation is performed, especially at a depth of more than 10 meters. Penetration into the soil is difficult and in stone impossible. It is difficult to remove gravel from the pipework and reduce the quality of the specimens. Getting the sample intact is a problem.
2) Rotary drill

It also provides samples of soil and rock, as well as samples for a variety of on-site experiments. This method is used in the drilling of non-vertebral holes for horizontal drainage or containment. Today, the use of rotary drilling machines is very common. These devices can be used on any type of ground. But the superiority of their use in soft areas is greater. The progress of these devices inside the hard rock is slower. In this way, the head of the steel drill that connects to the end of the steel pipe rotates through the well with the help of the engine. The drilling mud is injected into the well from inside the tube and returns from the pipe around the well.

Drilling mud while cooling the drill head Performs the handling of crushed stone from the bottom of the well with a drill head to the well and prevent the pressure of the loose floors and drop them into the well. The deepest wells in the world’s deepest excavated wells were drilled in 1956 in Louisiana (USA) at a depth of 21535 feet, which did not reach oil.

Drilling Method: Progress is made by the head drill head located at the end of the drill pipe and under the hydraulic pressure. The wall usually holds the well.

Advantages: The method is relatively fast and can penetrate all kinds of materials. Suitable for all types of sampling.

Limitations: Moving equipment in rugged, rugged areas is difficult and needs a good road. It also requires a leveling platform. The drilling efficiency varies according to the size of the machine.
3) Ogir is a continuous spiral

This machine drills in small to medium diameter holes and continuously captures the swollen specimens. Usually in adhesive soils, which does not drop a well without a pipe wall.

Drilling Method: Drilling is performed by rotating the continuous strand.

Advantages: The fast method is in soft soils and soft soils. After Ogger’s departure, if the well remains open, there is the possibility of sampling the SPT.

Limitations: Upon leaving the ocher in materials with little or no adhesion or without adhesion, the well falls and the depth of drilling is limited to the vicinity of the system. Sampling methods have been limited and samples have been lost.
4) Ogre between the empty

This machine drills a low to medium diameter holes for soil sampling.

Drilling Method: The drilling procedure is similar to the previous one, except that the hollow stem is wound to the ground to play the role of a separate pipe.

Benefits: The quick method of poor soils is relatively robust. Taking samples of SPT and UD is possible. In resistant soils containing sandy layers, it is difficult to penetrate into the depths and into rock fragments. Significant handicap may be caused by the drill in the soil.

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